Jn – Jz

 

Jobs, Steve

Born on February 24, 1955 to unwed parents, Steven Paul Jobs was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs, who moved to the suburban city of Mountain View, California a few years later.  Steve grew up in a neighborhood of engineers that would later become known as “Silicon Valley,” an area full of neighbors who would work on electronics and other gizmos in their garages on weekends, which shaped his interest in the field as he grew up.  At age 13, he met 18-year-old Steve Wozniak, an electronics whiz kid.  Five years later, when Steve Jobs reached college age, he told his parents he wanted to enroll in Reed College — an expensive liberal arts college up in Oregon.  Steve spent only one semester at Reed, then dropped out, as he was more interested in eastern philosophy, fruitarian diets, and LSD than in the classes he took.  He moved to a hippie commune in Oregon where his main activity was cultivating apples.  A few months later, Steve returned to California to look for a job, and was hired by Atari.  Meanwhile, he started to take interest in Wozniak’s new activity: building his own computer board, simply because he wanted a personal computer for himself.  Jobs quickly understood that his friend’s invention could be sold to software hobbyists, who wanted to write software without the hassle of assembling a computer kit.  Jobs convinced Wozniak to start a company for that purpose, and Apple Computer was born on April 1, 1976.

Apple quickly became an American success story, and made the young Apple founders millionaires.  In the wake of Apple’s success, its investors decided it was time to go public, and the initial public offering (IPO) took place in December 1980, only four years after the company was launched.  At age 25, Steve Jobs’ net worth increased to over $200 million.

When the Apple III computer flopped in 1980, Jobs’ reputation was put into question.  Most of his hopes then rested on a project to build and launch a business-oriented computer, which Jobs called the “Lisa.”  Though he stubbornly denied paternity, Jobs named the new computer after his high school girlfriend’s daughter, whom she claimed was his.  Jobs refused to give any money to Lisa’s mother, despite the millions he had accumulated at Apple.

Though his passion for the project was undeniable, Jobs was thrown out of the Lisa project due to his hot temper and relative inexperience in technology or management.  He felt absolutely crushed by this decision, and as a form of revenge, he took over a small project called Macintosh, a personal computer that was supposed to be a cheap appliance that would be “as easy to use as a toaster.”  In 1981, Jobs became head of the Macintosh project, and decided to make it a smaller and cheaper version of the Lisa.  The three years it took to develop Macintosh were some of the most productive and intense for Steve Jobs.  All of the company’s hopes eventually came to rest on the Macintosh.  After a very memorable TV commercial that ran during the 1984 Super Bowl, Steve Jobs introduced the Macintosh at the company’s annual shareholders meeting. The product was launched with great fanfare and for the first few months, it was very successful.  However, by early 1985, sales were plummeting, while Jobs continued to behave as if he had saved Apple.  This created a lot of tension within the company, especially between Steve and Sculley, who stopped talking to one another.  In May 1985, Steve Jobs started trying to convince some directors and top executives at Apple that Sculley should go.  Instead, the board of directors announced a reorganization of the company where Steve Jobs would remain chairman of the board, but have no operational duties whatsoever.

After four months spent traveling and trying out new ideas, Jobs resigned from Apple in September 1985, and went ahead with his plan to incorporate NeXT.  Also around this time, filmmaker George Lucas sold Jobs the computer graphics division of his Lucasfilm empire in early 1986, which Jobs incorporated as Pixar.  For its first five years, Jobs set a goal for the company to sell high-end computer graphics workstations for institutions, such as hospitals or even the U.S. Army.  The animations group led by John Lasseter was very small at the time, but the studio won an Academy Award for its short movie Tin Toy in 1989.  Still, sales of Pixar hardware were microscopic, and the company went software-only in 1990.

Jobs married his wife Laurene in 1991, but this high period didn’t last long.  Jobs started focusing less on work, and more on his wife and newborn son Reed.  Pixar became a software company, developing the RenderMan 3D rendering software.  Its animation business was kept alive because it was the only one that brought some cash in, but in 1991, Disney signed with Pixar to make a full-feature computer-animated movie.  By 1995, the movie was finally starting to take form, and Jobs became increasingly enthused by it.  By 1995, NeXT had failed and shut down, whereas Pixar was obviously going to benefit widely from the Disney marketing machine and make a hit with Toy Story.  Jobs took Pixar public the week following the release of the hit film, and in no time, Jobs, who owned 80% of the company, saw his net worth rise to over $1.5 billion.

After Apple lost $700 million in the first quarter of 1997, Jobs effectively organized a board coup, and was back in de facto control.  In August 1997, Jobs took the stage at Macworld Boston to explain his plan for Apple: he had gotten rid of the old board of directors, and made a deal with Microsoft to settle patent disputes and invest $150 million in the struggling Silicon Valley icon.  One month later, Jobs accepted Apple’s offer to become interim CEO.  The few months after Steve Jobs came back at Apple – while simultaneously running a thriving Pixar – were among the hardest-working in his life.  He would later tell his biographer Walter Isaacson that he was so exhausted during this period, he couldn’t speak when he came home at night.

Confidence in Jobs’ ability was restored when he introduced the iMac in May 1998.  It was a hot seller, and played a key role in bringing back tons of developers to the Mac platform. Design innovations continued throughout 1998 and 1999 with the colored iMacs and the iBook, Apple’s consumer notebook. After three years in charge, Steve Jobs had brought Apple back to its status of “cool tech” icon.  At Macworld in January 2000, he announced he had accepted the Apple board’s offer to become the company’s CEO, dropping the “interim” from his title.  He also remained CEO of Pixar.  That year, Jobs debuted his iTunes digital music file-sharing system.  On October 23, 2001, he introduced the iPod, which was a commercial success from the day it debuted.  While the iPod changed the music industry and the way everybody listens to music, Pixar released hit after hit (A Bug’s Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters Inc. (2001) and Finding Nemo (2003)), and in 2006, Jobs and Disney’s Robert Iger appeared onstage to announce that Disney would sell music videos and TV shows on the new iTunes service.  Disney soon announced its friendly acquisition of Pixar, putting $7.4 billion in stock on the table.  Jobs became a Disney board member and its largest individual shareholder (owning 7% of the company’s stock).  Considering its new diversity, Jobs had the Apple Computer Inc. name changed to Apple Inc.  While the Mac computers still mattered, they now accounted for only a minority of Apple’s revenues already, and this decline would not stop any time soon. Apple had become the most prominent digital device company.

In the midst of this wave of success, Jobs was diagnosed with a rare kind of pancreatic cancer in late 2003.  He was told that it could potentially be cured by surgery, but against everyone’s advice, he refused to have the surgery until nine months later.  During those months, he tried alternative diets and treatments including acupuncture and consulting with a psychic.  Only in July 2004 did he agree to have the surgery.  For the next five years, he looked healthy and in 2005, Jobs spoke publicly of being “cured” of cancer during a speech at Stanford.  By June 2008, Jobs appeared obviously thin, and concerns about his health started popping up again. These concerns became public in December 2008, when Apple made a shocking announcement that Jobs would not be the keynote speaker at Macworld 2009, and that he was taking a medical leave of absence for six months. Although he publicly denied it, his cancer had come back. He received a liver transplant in April 2009 and returned to Apple that summer, but his health declined again, and in January 2011, he announced he was taking a new medical leave of absence, this time without saying when it would end.  At his last public appearance in June 2011, he unveiled his plans for the future Apple campus in Cupertino, then, due to increasingly deteriorating health, he resigned as Apple’s CEO on August 24, 2011.  Jobs died peacefully at home on October 5, 2011 — one day after Apple’s introduction of the iPhone 4S.

 

Johnson, Daisy

Daisy Louise Johnson is the daughter of Marvel Comics’ villain Mr. Hyde and prostitute Jennifer Johnson.  She was giving up for adoption and was taken in by Greggory and Janet Sutter, who renamed the seven-month-old girl Cory Sutter.  The two were unaware of her parentage and raised Daisy as their own, not telling her that she was adopted.  Seventeen years later, teenage Daisy had an extremely high I.Q., but was failing out of school.  After being caught by police for stealing CDs, she became agitated and lost control of her body, and her natural-born powers caused a tremor that measured 3.2 on the Richter scale.  She was taken to the S.H.I.E.L.D. facility in Portland, Oregon to be interrogated by Nick Fury, who informed her of her powers and her real parentage.  Fury then enlisted Daisy as a special agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Testing determined that Daisy’s powers were not caused by a mutant gene, but were a result of her father’s chemical testing on himself, which passed down genetically to Daisy. Daisy showed a real aptitude in her training, particularly in the field of black ops.  Fury noted she would have finished top of her class even without her powers.

The character of Daisy Johnson was created by Brian Michael Bendis and Gabriele Dell’Otto in their Secret War limited series, where she was featured as a trusted and valued secret weapon of Nick Fury’s.  After introducing the character in Secret War, Bendis proceeded to use her as a recurring character in the Avengers franchise.  This eventually culminated with her getting her own team, the Secret Warriors, during Bendis’ “Secret Invasion” event.  Daisy was then handed over to writer Jonathan Hickman, who wrote the 28-issue Secret Warriors series, and took charge of her development as a character.  She was featured as Fury’s most prized student, sharing a pseudo father/daughter relationship with him.  Her storyline includes her development as a leader, her love affair with Hellfire and the betrayal that followed, and her ultimate ascension to run the new organization Fury created.

Daisy has the ability to generate earthquakes.  Her training under Nick Fury enabled her to focus her seismic vibrations with precision, causing her targets to vibrate and explode from the inside out. She is immune to any harmful effects of the vibrations.  She has also has a psychic shield, which prevents or aids her in not being harmed by psychic assaults made by those with such abilities.

She has such a fine control over her powers that she can erupt a person’s heart from the inside or induce vibrations in a person’s brain to render them unconscious, even from a distance.  On the other end of her scale, she can bring down whole buildings in seconds.  Training with Fury made her a superb hand-to-hand combatant, a highly skilled athlete and marksman, as well as a qualified undercover agent.  She is also a leading espionage agent, adept at undercover assignments.  Aside from Fury and the Black Widow, Daisy is the only known agent with Level 10 SHIELD security clearance.

 

Joint Photographic Experts Group

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (also known as JPEG) is an ISO/IEC group of experts that develops and maintains standards for a suite of compression algorithms for computer image files.  “JPEG” is also used as a term referring to any graphic image file produced by using a JPEG standard.  A JPEG file is created by choosing from a number of compression algorithm suites.  When a JPEG is created or converted from an image based on another format to a JPEG, the user must specify the desired quality (and thus size, since the highest quality results in the largest file) of the image.  Together with the Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) and Portable Network Graphics (PNG) file formats, the JPEG is one of the image file formats supported on the internet, usually denoted by the file suffix “.jpg.”

 

Joker, The

Unquestionably the most recognizable comic book villain in pop culture history, Batman’s archenemy The Joker is unpredictable, violent and incredibly dangerous.  While in some ways, the Joker is the polar opposite of the Dark Knight, both identities were created by great tragedy, but while Batman does whatever it takes to prevent similar incidents, the Joker revels in creating chaos and destroying lives, believing that life’s a big joke and psychotically demonstrating that at any moment, it can all change.

Debuting in Batman #1 (1940), The Joker was created by Jerry Robinson, who modeled the villain after Conrad Veidt’s performance as Gwynplaine in the 1928 silent film The Man Who Laughs.  The Joker was originally rejected as a villain by DC Comics editors, who thought he was too clownish to be taken seriously as a criminal.  In his first dozen or so appearances in Batman comics, he was a mass murderer.  He was originally meant to die in his second appearance, but the editor Whitney Ellsworth saw the potential of the character, and opted for his survival.  One more hastily drawn panel by Bob Kane was added to the very end of the last page of the issue, showing the Joker had survived.  In the history of DC, he has killed one Robin, crippled Batgirl, and tortured and murdered countless people—typically, just for a laugh.

Originally, Gotham City’s most notorious criminal had no backstory, but Detective Comics #168 revealed that, before his transformation, the Joker was the criminal known as the Red Hood.  Accidentally falling into a vat of chemicals, his facial features were altered, making him the Joker.  Much of the Bronze Age and Iron Age depictions of the Joker actually derive far less from the goofy Silver Age Joker than they do from Frank Gorshin’s eerie depiction of The Riddler in the 1960s Batman television series.  Both the Bronze Age and Iron Age Joker and Gorshin’s Riddler are obsessed with matching wits with The Batman, love to lecture other people about their personal life philosophy, and will shift from eerily calm to manic at a moment’s notice — none of these were signature traits in the Silver Age Joker.  Heath Ledger, who won a posthumous Academy Award for his depiction of the Joker in 2009’s The Dark Knight, was quoted as saying that his performance was inspired to a large extent by Frank Gorshin’s Riddler.

Another attempt to establish an origin story for the Joker was the 1988 independent graphic novel The Killing Joke, in which he is said to have been an engineer at a chemical plant before quitting his job to pursue a career in stand-up comedy.  After he failed miserably, in desperate need to support his pregnant wife, he turned to a couple of criminals who planned to break into the plant he worked in.  The Red Hood persona is given to him, signifying him as the inside man of the operation and also seemingly making him the leader, who would take the fall in the event of the operation going wrong.  In the middle of planning, the police call him, informing him that his wife and unborn child have died.  Stricken with grief, he attempts to back out, but his hand is forced to continue the operation. When they arrive at the plant, however, security, had been increased unbeknown to him, are waiting for them; and, as the Red Hood runs away, the two other criminals were shot dead. Upon seeing the Batman, the Red Hood jumped over a rail, into a vat of chemicals. He washed up in a nearby waterway, where, upon the removal of his Red Hood, he saw his skin had turned chalk white, his hair green, and his lips ruby red. With this added to the previous misfortunes of his day, he had a psychotic breakdown, and as such the Joker was born. However it is suggested in The Killing Joke, by the Joker himself, that sometimes he remembers his past one way, sometimes another. This leaves the origins of the Joker, as ever, open to speculation.  In Batman: Gotham Knights #50-55, there is a witness to the murder of the Joker’s wife: Edward Nygma (intermittently spelled “Nigma,” depending on the writer), aka the Riddler, who claimed that the criminals used this to force the Joker (in this version, he was named Jack before the accident) into following through with the crime.  The latest, and by far longest, origin story is Batman: Lovers & Madmen, followed by Batman: Dead to Rights, a compilation of several issues from the Batman Confidential series. This version of the story is told from Batman’s point-of-view. There is no mention of a wife, a normal crime-free life, or ever having been the Red Hood.

In Hollywood, a few actors have worn the makeup of The Joker: respected Latin actor Cesar Romero in the 1966-69 TV series Batman; Jack Nicholson in the 1989 big-screen film Batman, and the late Heath Ledger received accolades and a posthumous Oscar for his portrayal of the manic Joker in 2008’s The Dark Knight.  The original creator of the Joker character, Jerry Robinson, was hired as one of the creative consultants for The Dark Knight, which closely followed Jerry’s stylings of the villain.  In 2016, Jared Leto received critical acclaim for his portrayal of the “Clown Prince of Crime” in Suicide Squad.

 

Jones, Davy (Davie)

A character of nautical superstition, popularized in the 19th Century, but with origins going back to seamen and pirates of the 18th century.  The phrase “Davy Jones’ Locker” represents the bottom of the sea, or death, and the entry point of the afterlife, for dead sailors and pirates.  Davy Jones himself is often represented as a devil, saint or god of the sea.  Origins of his name are not known today, with many historians claiming that it became spread among the sailors of that age by simple word-of-mouth.  During the 1630s, a pirate captain using the name David Jones sailed across the Indian Ocean, but many scholars are in agreement that he was not sufficiently famous to gain such a lasting legacy.  Two of the earliest written notations of a “Davie Jones” were in the books Four Years Voyages of Capt. George Roberts by Daniel Defoe in 1726 and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle by Tobias Smollett in 1751.  Both books described Jones as the deity of death.  Throughout the years, many other theories about his origins came to light, the most popular ones of which being that Davie Jones was a British pub owner who put his drunk customers into his ale locker and dumped them onto any passing ship, or that he was Duffer Jones (a notoriously myopic sailor whose condition often led him to fall off the ship).  There were also several theories that Davie Jones’ name came by altering the names of older saints or spirits (Welsh Saint David, protector of sailors in times of mortal danger, or West Indian malevolent ghost Duppy, possibly combined with an “evil angel” the sailors called Jonah).

During the years when the legend of Davie Jones was at its height, many sailors refused to discuss anything relating to him.  However, there is a long-standing tradition of celebrating the crossing of Equatorial line that includes paying homage to Davy Jones.  Popularization of Davy Jones and his locker happened during 19th Century, with notable references in the works of Washington Irving, Edgar Allan Poe (in story “King Pest”), Herman Melville (in famous novel Moby Dick), Charles Dickens (Bleak House) and most famously in Robert Louis Stevenson’s 1883 novel Treasure Island.

During the 20th century Davie Jones was mentioned in many books and songs, but his most notable appearances were in Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest (2006) and Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End (2007), in which he was featured as the undying evil spirit that collects the souls of dying pirates in his legendary ship The Flying Dutchman, and his locker was portrayed as a sort of purgatory for the dead souls.  In these films, the legendary character was portrayed by Bill Nighy.

 

Jones, Dr. Henry (“Indiana”), Jr.

The whip-cracking archaeologist who first appeared in the 1981 movie Raiders of the Lost Ark (later repackaged as Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark) became the hero of sequels, novels and a television series.  According to the collective lore, the hero was born Henry Walton Jones Jr. on July 1, 1899 in Princeton, New Jersey, son of Henry Jones Sr. and his wife Anna.  Traveling around the world with his parents in 1908, Jones met T.E. Lawrence (aka “Lawrence of Arabia”) and archaeologist Howard Carter, who would open the tomb of King Tutankhamun, in Cairo.  In 1909, while in Nairobi, the ten-year-old met Teddy Roosevelt.  In 1912, he survived the sinking of the RMS Titanic with the women and children.  That summer, back in Utah, Jones acquired a certain fedora, a whip, a bit of adventure, and a lifelong fear of snakes after thwarting the theft of the cross of Coronado.

In June 1914, Indy was dragged to Constantinople as his father pursued the Holy Grail. Luckily, also joining him is Herman Mueller and together they investigate the trail of a knife believed to be linked to the legend of Cain and Abel.  Their adventure was cut somewhat short when Indy’s father heard of the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and left Turkey.  In April 1916, while Indy was heading to Europe, the family dog “Indiana” died.  In January 1917, Indy and Albert Schweitzer discussed philosophy and the ethics of civilization at his jungle hospital. Seeing Schweitzer working alone to cure the ills of the locals inspired Indiana and he vows to do

By April 1920, Indy is enrolled at the University of Chicago, but more jazz than studying when he, his roommate Elliot Ness, and Ernest Hemingway work together to solve the murder of Indy’s boss in his own restaurant. They discover a connection to Johnny Torrio, Al Capone and organized crime, but are stonewalled when they are confronted by the unbelievable corruption in City Hall.  That August 1920, while working for a Hollywood movie studio, Indy met aging gunman Wyatt Earp.  In 1922, Indy completed his undergraduate degree and moves onto a graduate program in linguistics at the Sorbonne in France.  He completed his graduate studies in 1925, and was hired for his first professorial job at London University, teaching a summer archaeology course.

In 1927, Indy left his job in London to return to Chicago. In the Windy City, he attended a lecture given by a Russian who claimed to have climbed Mount Ararat and discovered the resting site of Noah’s Ark.  Indy joined an expedition to the Ararat, and his group reached the site of the Ark, but an avalanche buried the Ark beneath tons of snow and ice.

In the summer of 1935, Indiana Jones was hired by the Chinese to find a lost treasure called the Heart of the Dragon.  Making his way to an Indian village, where he confronts a cult of Kali worshippers and manages to defeat the high priest of the cult, Indy recovered one of the three Sankara stones and simultaneously saved the village’s children.

Government agents intercepted a communiqué in late 1936 from Cairo to Berlin, believed to be sent by Abner Ravenwood.  Indy was consulted, since he had had past dealings with Ravenwood, and was asked to investigate a Nazi dig.  He learned that they were looking for the headpiece of the Staff of Ra so that they could locate the Well of the Souls, the resting place of the lost Ark of the Covenant.  Indy beat the Nazis, both to the headpiece and to the Well of the Souls.  Ravenwood’s daughter and Indy’s former love interest Marion became Indy’s partner in the adventure and together they found the Ark.  Belloq showed up again to steal the Ark for the Nazis, but was killed when he opened the Ark to get the tablets containing the Ten Commandments.  The Ark was subsequently placed into storage in a secret government warehouse somewhere in Washington.

While in Greece in August 1937, Indy recovered the shield of Perseus from a sunken ship.  It revealed clues to the location of the Eye of the Fates, which could reveal the future.  Indy traveled to Mount Olympus to seek the object.  In 1938, Indiana Jones finally recovered the Cross of Coronado from the man who “acquired” it back in 1912.  Afterwards, he returned to his job at Barnett College and there, was contracted by a collector of antiquities, Walter Donovan.  He informed Indy that his father, Henry Jones Sr., disappeared while following a lead to the Holy Grail.  Indiana traveled to Italy and joined forces with another archaeologist, Elsa Schneider.  Together, they discovered several other clues concerning the Grail and eventually determined its actual resting place.  Elsa and Donovan were revealed to be Nazi spies when Indy finally located his father.  They steal his father’s Grail diary and left the father and son team captive.  The Joneses escaped, retrieved the diary and barely caught up to the Nazis in the hunt for the Grail.  Unfortunately, the Grail was lost when Elsa attempted to take it beyond the seal of the cave where it was found.

Indiana was hired by the U.S. government in March 1939 to lead an expedition to an iceberg near Greenland to uncover an ice-encased Viking longship.  The Nazis were also interested in the ice wall, since it contained a strange disc of unearthly origin.  The disc was freed, revealing itself to be a UFO, which ended up destroying the Nazi submarine before disappearing into space.  The U.S. rescue team arrived to save Indy’s group from the longship, which sank back beneath the surface of the water.

Two months later, a mysterious stranger arrived at Barnett College with an ancient key, and Indiana looked up a former colleague, Sophia Hapgood.  Together, they determine that the key is part of a dig that unearthed treasures from the lost continent of Atlantis.  Continuing that quest, they traveled around the world, adventuring to Mayan ruins and the labyrinth of the Minotaur before finding all of the pieces of the key to Atlantis.  Just as they did, the Nazis arrived, intent on plundering Atlantis for their own gains.  They nearly succeeded, but ancient magic killed the Nazis and placed Atlantis out of reach once more.

In 1940, during an observation of native worshippers, many become victims of the Plague. The source of the plague is the Fourth Horseman of the Apocalypse, who had released his evils upon the world.  Indy faced zombies and barely escaped an earthquake which hits the area, killing the Horseman.  In 1945, in a last-ditch effort to win the war, Hitler sent agents to Britain and Ireland in search of the spear which pierced the side of Christ on the cross.  It was believed that the spear would make the army that wielded it invincible.  However, the Germans’ plans are thwarted by Indiana and the True King of Ireland.

Almost 15 years later, at the height of the Cold War, Indy meets rebellious young Mutt Williams, who has a proposition for the adventurous archaeologist: If he’ll help Mutt on a mission with deeply personal stakes, Indy could very well make one of the most spectacular archaeological discoveries in history: the Crystal Skull of Akator, a legendary object of fascination, superstition and fear.  Soviet agents are also hot on the trail of the Crystal Skull, which they believe can help the Soviets dominate the world.  While on the hunt for the skull, the archaeologist meets Mutt’s mother: Indy’s old love Marion Ravenwood.  She reveals that Mutt’s real name is Henry Jones III.  After returning home from Peru, Indy is reinstated and made an associate dean at Marshall College, and he and Marion are married.  By the 1990s, Indy, now in his nineties, is still lecturing, though his cane and eyepatch limit his adventures.

The Hollywood role of Indiana Jones was first played by Harrison Ford in Raiders of the Lost Ark.  In Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, River Phoenix played young Indiana in flashback scenes, and in the TV series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Jones was played by Sean Patrick Flanery, with George Hall as the elderly Jones.  In 1993, Ford reprised his legendary role for a guest appearance on the series.

 

Jones, Jonathan “Johnny”

Once the most feared pirate to ever sail the Mushroom Seas of the Mario Brothers world, the shark character Johnny Jones appears in the game Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars.  When his ship was attacked and pulled down into the Briney Sea by giant squid King Kalimari, Mario met and defeated him.  Afterwards, Johnny surprisingly befriended Mario.  Later, when Yaridovich confronted Mario, Johnny was there in seconds, ready to help. Johnny then got his wish when the Star Road was repaired, he found a friend and his ship sailed once more in the first annual “Star Road Day Parade.”

 

Jones, Jughead

Born Forsythe Pendleton Jones lll, Jughead’s first appearance was in Pep Comics in 1941.  The rather casual character from the Archie comic series is typically referred to as Jug, Juggy or, typically, Jughead.  Known for his trademark “S” sweatshirt and beanie hat, he is often depicted lying around or eating.  He has shown little to no interest in girls, often saying, “I find food to be a better companion.”  Even though he demonstrates unhealthy eating habits, his athleticism has been proven on several occasions.  Oftentimes, he is seen running from Ethel or racing to the front of the lunch line at Riverdale High.  Despite his outward demeanor, Jughead is also very intelligent.  He is often shown outsmarting and tricking Reggie Mantle, and during the toughest of times, he often speaks out, fixing the situation with a few simple words.  At school, he tends to stay out of trouble, but he frustrates the teachers with his nonchalant attitude.  They find it odd that he does well in school without putting in any type of serious effort.

Jughead has quite the obsession with food. In almost all of his appearances he is eating or about to eat something. Despite his eating habits, he remains the same size, only sporting a rather enlarged stomach after eating a big load. Pop Tate’s Chocklit Shoppe is a frequently visited by Jughead, where he often accumulates large tabs.

It is rare to see a comic issue that doesn’t show Jughead wearing two signature items: his sweater and his crown-shaped beanie.  To this day, no one knows what the letter “S” on his sweater stands for, as Jughead refuses to reveal it to anyone.  On one occasion, Jughead received the painful news from his parents that the family was moving out of Riverdale.  Thinking he would never see his best pal again, Jughead decided to reveal the secret behind the “S” to Archie, but just as he was about to, Jughead’s father interrupted him to tell Jughead that they were no longer moving.  His hat features a dot and a dash, Morse code for the letter “A.”  No explanation is given for this, either.

Jughead is the drummer of the musical group The Archies.  His custom-made bass drum can store food.  In one story, Jughead was originally the guitarist, but he soon falls in love with the drum, and his principal Mr. Weatherbee switches Reggie from drum to guitar, and Jughead from guitar to drum.  Drum enthusiasts may note that Jughead’s drum kit is drawn inaccurately in a majority of issues, as the hi-hat, snare drum and small/medium toms are often out of position, the bass drum is wider than longer, and the crash and ride cymbals are often missing.  Even Jughead’s style of holding the drumsticks is awkward.

Jughead’s best friend is Archie Andrews.  They often bail each other out of trouble, although Jughead is the one doing the bailing most of the time.  Jughead also really likes Betty Cooper, but in a strictly platonic way.  Betty often cooks Jughead meals and confides in him when she has trouble with Archie.  Jughead often advises Archie to date Betty instead of Veronica Lodge.  He also has a love-hate relationship with Veronica.  Veronica claims to dislike him because of his laid-back demeanor and smart-alecky comments, but it is revealed that after sharing an onstage kiss, Veronica fell in love with Jughead, though it was short-lived.

Jughead’s family includes his father Forsythe Pendleton Jones Jr., his mother Gladys, and his sister Jellybean.  He has a dog named Hot Dog.

 

Jones, Terry

The often high-pitched and female-impersonating founding member of the Monty Python comedy troupe was born Terry Graham Parry Jones on February 1, 1942 in Colwyn Bay, Wales. He spent most of his upbringing in Claygate, Surrey, and was educated at the local primary school before moving on to the Royal Grammar School in Guildford.  Here, Jones got involved in every activity going from the Army Cadet Corp to rugby (eventually becoming his squad’s captain).  After being turned down by universities in Manchester, London, Bristol and Exeter, Jones was offered an interview by Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and an exam at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, from which he received an offer that he accepted.  In 1961, Jones entered Oxford to study English Literature.  There, Jones became involved in the undergraduate magazine Isis, eventually becoming the designer. This brought him into contact with the Oxford thespians, and before long, Jones became actively involved in the college theatre scene.

With a friend, Jones started the Experimental Theatre Company, performing a wide range of material from Brecht to cabaret.  In his second year, Jones wrote a revue show for the Edinburgh festival, after which the show moved to the LAMDA theatre in London, then to the Phoenix.  Returning for his third year, Jones began writing with Robert Hewison and future co-Python Michael Palin, and they wrote the production Hang Down Your Head and Die, a comic look at the death penalty set in a circus ring, with Jones playing the condemned man.  This ran for 11 days at the Oxford Playhouse, then for 6 weeks at the Comedy Theatre in London.  A year later, Jones and Palin wrote for and organized The Oxford Revue that played at the 1964 Edinburgh Festival. While Jones’ first production had been satirical, The Oxford Revue was much more Python.  It was at the end of the show that David Frost introduced himself and all but offered Jones and Palin a job.  While writing for The Frost Report, Jones and Palin were introduced to Graham Chapman, Eric Idle and John Cleese.

When Jones graduated, he landed a job as a copywriter for Anglia Television before moving to the BBC as a script editor.  It was here that he was put into a six-week director’s course (which he failed to complete, due to a severe case of peritonitis).  Despite this, Jones became a production assistant, before being recruited as a joke writer for Late-Night Line-Up by producer Rown Ayres.  Here, Jones joined his old writing mates from Oxford, Michael Palin and Robert Hewison.  Before long, Hewison dropped out, and Jones and Palin were admitted into the hallowed circle of writers for The Frost Report.  In addition to this, the Jones-Palin team was also contributing to other shows, such as The Late Show and A Series of Birds.  From here, Palin and Jones moved on to LWT’s series Do Not Adjust Your Set (with Eric Idle and Terry Gilliam), as well as writing for Broaden Your Mind and the BBC production of Marty (along with Cleese and Chapman).  At this point, producer Barry Took suggested that this group of writers get together to produce their own show, and Monty Python was born.

From the start, Jones and Palin were instrumental in toning down the clever, word-based sketches that were a hallmark of Cleese and Chapman, with the more visual style first seen in The Oxford Revue.  Jones also started sitting in at the editing sessions, helping to shape the show.  After having creative difficulties with director Ian MacNaughton on the first Python film … And Now For Something Completely Different, Jones and Terry Gilliam co-directed the troupe’s next film, Monty Python and the Holy Grail.  From there, Jones’ directorial career took off, to include Monty Python’s The Life of Brian and Monty Python’s The Meaning of Life, before trying his hand in the outside projects Personal Services and Erik the Viking.  Jones also collaborated with Palin to write the successful series Ripping Yarns.

During the post-Python era, Jones also became a respected children’s author, with stories such as Curse of the Vampire Socks, Fantastic Stories, Nicobonimus and The Saga of Erik the Viking (originally written for his son Bill).  During the 1980s, Jones also wrote a regular column in the daily newspaper The Guardian, covering subjects such as the concentration of media power, the poll tax, nuclear power and the ozone layer.  Jones was also responsible for the popular children’s cartoon series Blazing Dragons, which ran from 1996 to 1998, and was subsequently turned into a computer game for the Sega Saturn console (with Jones providing some of the voices).  With Palin, Jones also wrote Dr. Fegg’s Encyclopaedia of All World Knowledge.  More recently, he has written a number of bitingly satirical and hard-hitting opinion pieces for The Observer and The Guardian, many of which have been published in his book Terry Jones’s War on the War on Terror.  Jones has also built something of a career as a medieval historian.  His first book, Chaucer’s Knight: Portrait of a Medieval Mercenary, challenged the popular idea that the knight in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales was a noble pillar of society, suggesting that he was instead a brutal mercenary.  A subsequent book Who Murdered Chaucer? speculates that the disappearance of Chaucer from historical records after 1400 was due to his being murdered by Archbishop Arundel, or even King Henry IV, for being a politically inconvenient critic.

As well as these serious academic volumes, Jones has written history books in which he demolishes the standard rose-tinted views of the ancient world we normally hear about.  His series of Hidden Histories films (Hidden History of EgyptHidden History of Rome, Hidden History of Sex & Love) are light-hearted look at the diets, hygiene, careers, sex lives, and domestic arrangements in the ancient world.  Jones’ book and series Medieval Lives (which saw Jones reverting to form and dressing up in women’s clothes!) reveals that medieval kings were more cruel, damsels were less helpless, knights were less chivalrous, and peasants less downtrodden and diseased than Renaissance and Victorian historians would have us believe.  Jones’ last book and series Barbarians was about the history of the Roman Empire as seen by the Celts, Germans, Greeks, Persians and Africans.  It showed the Romans as more barbaric than the “barbarians” they conquered. Recently, Jones has been directing an opera based on libretto he wrote called Evil Machines (based on story by the same name that he also wrote, about machines who fight back).  It opened in January 2008 in Lisbon, Portugal.

Of all the Pythons, Jones has been the one who has consistently kept the Python flame alive, and kept the team together, however loosely.  It was Jones who was behind their last big gathering, in Aspen.  Along with Michael Palin, he is one of the Pythons with a career that has far exceeded where he started.

Jones married Alison Telfer in 1970, and they separated in 2004, after which he was attached with Anna Sonderstrom.  He has two children with Telfer, Sally (b. 1974) and Bill (b. 1976), and a daughter Siri (b. 2009) with Sonderstrom, whom he married in 2014.

 

Jor-El

DC Comics character created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the father of Kal-El (known on Earth years later as Superman) debuted in More Fun Comics #101 in 1945.  Son of Jor-El the First and Nimda An-Dor, Jor-El was born into a family of very prominent position in society on the planet Krypton.  The members of the El family were bastions of the scientific world.  During his youth, Jor would be mentored by the scientist Non, a relationship that he would keep strong for years to come.  He eventually struck out on his own, delving fully into the realms of science and becoming a respected member of the Kryptonian Science Council in his own right.  Following in the footsteps of his creative ancestors, Jor-El invented a hovercraft, and made a number of useful discoveries that he contributed to society, though his most lasting discovery was that of the Phantom Zone.  He lived a healthy life with his wife Lara Lor-Van and his son Kal-El (who would later be known on Earth as Superman).

During his research, Jor-El made a startling discovery: Krypton’s core was unstable, and if it was allowed to continue on its current course, it could result in the destruction of the planet.  Alarmed, Jor-El shared this information with both his brother Zor-El, and his former mentor Non.  Zor-El would take the warning to heart and begin his own preparations, leading to first his daughter’s, and later his family’s, arrival on Earth.  After having his findings further confirmed, Jor-El took them to the council.  Sadly, the Science Council was unmoved by Jor-El’s words, branding his findings ludicrous and ordering him to never speak of them again.  Jor-El continued to attempt to rally support, until finally he was accused of causing undue panic, and threatened with exile to the very Phantom Zone he had found.

Though the majority of Kryptonians did not believe him, a few took his words to heart.  Among them were General Dru-Zod (also known as General Zod) and his lieutenant/lover Ursa.  Learning of Jor-El’s discovery, Zod and Ursa realized that he spoke the truth.  They offered to work with Jor-El, but, sensing the greed behind their actions, he declined their offer of allegiance.  When their insurrection failed, Jor-El was chosen to be their jailer.  Zod viewed Jor-El’s inaction as a betrayal, and made him the target of his hatred, and as Zod was consigned to the Phantom Zone, he vowed to take over Krypton and make Jor-El and his son kneel before him.

Abiding by the will of the council, Jor-El spoke no more of his findings.  Instead, he began to work on a way to save his son.  Using his technology to attempt to find a suitable world for his son to be raised on, Jor-El sent a probe to Earth to learn of its inhabitants.  The probe made contact with Thomas Wayne, and sent a holographic transmission of Wayne’s consciousness to Krypton.  Jor-El learned that the people of Earth were not perfect, but were essentially a good and kind race, who would raise the child right.  Meanwhile, Thomas Wayne would use the technology in the Kryptonian probe to revitalize a failing Wayne Enterprises, and years later, the alien technology would form the basis for much of Batman’s crime-fighting technology.

Jor-El decided that Earth would be the perfect home for Kal, especially after his discovery of the effects of a yellow sun on Kryptonian physiology.  He then set about building a rocket for Kal’s journey.  Jor also began preparations to ensure his son would be properly educated, and that the knowledge of Krypton would survive.  Just as he completed his preparations, Krypton began to shake itself apart, as Jor had predicted.  The scientist sent his son to the planet Earth.  Years later, an adult Kal was able to view his parents through Lex Luthor’s time-space communicator.  Back on Krypton, seconds before its destruction, Jor-El and Lara see their son alive and well on Earth, and know that their efforts were successful.  Through his actions, Jor-El had not only saved his son, but sent Earth her greatest protector.

Jor-El possessed Kryptonian physiology, and thus was able to exhibit their powers, such as solar energy absorption, heat vision, super-hearing, and enhanced vision (including electromagnetic spectrum vision, microscopic vision, telescopic vision, x-ray vision and infrared vision).  He was invulnerable and possessed incredible stamina levels, as well as superhuman strength, speed, reflexes, agility and, as his son does on Earth, could blow great gusts of wind from his mouth.  He had advanced knowledge of Kryptonian history and was proficient in scientific engineering.  Like others of his race, he was vulnerable to kryptonite.

Jor-El was portrayed by Marlon Brando in the 1978’s Superman: The Movie, and in Superman Returns (2006), he was digitally recreated to play the “phantom” of Jor-El.  In the CW television series Smallville, Jor-El’s role as nearly the same in the comic books, but he doesn’t have a psychical appearance.  His voice (provided by actor Terence Stamp, who had portrayed Zod in Superman: The Movie and Superman II) can be heard at first in the ship, then in a cave, and later, in the Fortress of Solitude.

 

Jordan, Hal

 

The alternative identity of Green Lantern was created by John Broome and Gil Kane, after DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz began bringing in a new science fiction age of comics by revamping the superhero genre.  He first appeared in Showcase #22, published in October 1959.  His first appearance signaled the reboot of characters away from the magic- and supernatural-based stories of the Golden Age, replacing them with science fiction-based stories.  Along with the newly reimagined The Atom, The Flash and Hawkman, this was a landmark moment which many consider to be the beginning of the Silver Age at DC.  Replacing Alan Scott’s magic-based Green Lantern was Hal Jordan, wielder of a ring of alien origins and part of an intergalactic police force, protecting his assigned sector of the universe.

Born into a military family, Hal’s father Martin was a test pilot for Ferris Aircraft when Hal was young.  The two shared an especially close bond, as well as a love of flying.  Martin was killed during a test-flight gone awry, with both Hal and Carol Ferris watching.  As a result, Hal’s mother forbade him from frequenting airfields or having anything whatsoever to do with the world of aviation.  In accordance with this ultimatum, Hal promised not to join the Air Force.  After high school, Hal was returning to Coast City after a visit to Metropolis University.  On the same flight was Clark Kent of Smallville.  When their plane hit heavy turbulence, spinning the plane out of control, Hal helped to keep the passengers calm while Clark secretly stabilized the 707.  Hal and Clark would remain friends.  Hal enrolled in college and earned a degree in Aviation Engineering.  Afterward, he did break his promise to his mother, enlisting in the Air Force and serving under Capt. Richard Davis, who would become his mentor.

Hal was considered one of the best young pilots, flying his first combat missions during the Korean War.  Years later, when he learned his mother was dying, Hal planned to visit her, but his brother Jack said his mom had no interest in seeing him.  Knowing that the reason his mother refused to see him was due to his being in the Air Force, he enacted a plan to get discharged as quickly as possible, punching his commanding officer.  He was summarily dishonorably discharged, and went immediately see his mother, but she passed away just before he arrived at the hospital.  With his degree, Hal rejoined civilian life, designing a flightless trainer for Ferris Aircraft Corporation.  He became Ferris’ top test pilot, but was passed over for the astronaut program, after which he was interviewed by Clark Kent for Metropolis’ Daily Planet.

Hal’s most important personal relationship is with Carol Ferris. As the inheritor of the family business at Ferris Air, she is his boss, but over time the childhood friends grew to love each other.

While testing a flight simulator, an energy field surrounded Hal and took him to Abin Sur, a member of an intergalactic peace-keeping force called the Green Lantern Corps.  On the verge of death, Abin Sur’s power ring sought out his successor, the most fearless being in the entire sector.  The ring reached Earth and found two Earthlings, Hal Jordan and Guy Gardner.  Hal happened to be closer to the crash site, so he was chosen.  Despite some character flaws, Hal Jordan was given the power ring and its power battery.  He journeyed to the planet Oa, home world of the Green Lantern Corps, and trained with Sinestro, a Corps member that would later become one of Hal’s deadliest enemies.  He became the Green Lantern of Sector 2814 (Earth’s sector) and formed many relationships among the superhero community.  Hal is considered the greatest Green Lantern of them all.

 

Joule

In the International System of Units (SI), the standard unit of work or energy, equal to the work done by a force of one newton when its point of application moves through a distance of one meter in the direction of the force.  One joule is equal to 10(7) ergs and one watt-second.  Abbreviated J or j.

 

Joust

Quite the unique video game, Joust was introduced into arcades in 1982 by Williams Electronics, Inc.  Players used a joystick to control direction, and a “flap” button to control their character’s altitude.  During gameplay, each player controlled a different knight, who rode a different mount when facing each other in mid-flight combat.  The first player controlled a yellow knight on a flying ostrich, while the second player controlled a light blue knight who rode a giant stork.  Meanwhile, three enemy knights rode giant buzzards of different colors.  Other enemies included the “unbeatable” pterodactyl and The Lava Troll, a giant hand that reached out and grabbed from one of two lava pools at the bottom of the screen.  If a player’s feathered mount flew too close to either of the lava pits, The Lava Troll would reach out, grab it by the legs, and pull both animal and rider into his fiery home.

Each time an enemy knight was defeated in a joust by ramming him atop his head, he turned into an egg.  The eggs had to be captured before they hatched, because if an egg hatched, the knight would have to face a more difficult foe.  A Bounder became a Hunter, a Hunter became a Shadow Lord, and so on.  After the egg hatched, a new mount would fly out to pick up the newly-hatched enemy knight.  A player could also collect an enemy knight before he mounted his “steed.”  At higher levels, platforms collapsed and disintegrated.  Occasionally, there would be an Egg Wave, during which the player had to grab all the enemy eggs before they hatched.  The difficulty level increased with each play level.

 

JPG/JPEG

See Joint Photographic Experts Group.

 

JSA

See Justice Society of America.

 

JScript

Microsoft’s extended implementation of Netscape’s scripting language JavaScript was similar to the original, but had extensions specifically for the Windows environment.  Internet Explorer supported JScript and VBScript, and each had their strengths and weaknesses for webpage programming.  JScript could be used for both simple tasks (such as mouseovers on webpages) and for more complex tasks (such as updating a database with Active Server Pages (ASPs) or running logon scripts.

 

Judge Dredd

In the 22nd Century, Mega-City One is a vast urban nightmare situated along the east coast of post-apocalyptic North America.  To the west, the irradiated wasteland known as The Cursed Earth covers most of America, and the polluted Black Atlantic lies to the east.  Over 400 million citizens are crammed into gigantic city-blocks, overcrowding is rife, unemployment is endemic and boredom is universal.  Tensions and crime run rampant.  Only the armored Judges prevent total anarchy.  Empowered to dispense instant justice, these lawmen act as combination judge, jury and, if need be, executioner.  One of the clones of Chief Judge Fargo, Judge Joe Dredd is the toughest and most famous of the elite corps.  In 2066, Dredd and his twin brother Rico emerged from the cloning facility, and as five year olds, they are enrolled into the Academy of Law, graduating 13 years later.

Judge Dredd travels on a Lawmaster motorbike, which features powerful side-mounted cannons, a center-mounted “Cyclops” laser, and full artificial intelligence.  It is capable of responding to orders from the Judge, and is capable of driving itself.   It is connected to the Justice Department, which can transmit information to and receive information from the bike.  Dredd also has a handgun which is named the Lawgiver, complete with DNA coding so that no one else can use the weapon; it will explode if it reads an incorrect palm-print.

John Wagner came up with the concept behind Judge Dredd by request from Pat Mills of Rebellion comics, and Carlos Ezquerra created the character design.  Writer Peter Harris, artist Michael “Mick” McMahon and Wagner developed the character further.  He was the first of a line of tough-guy heroes to come from 2000 AD’s pages, along with the likes of Rogue Trooper, but he has always remained the most popular and influential mainstay of the publication.  Dredd has been portrayed on the Hollywood screen by Sylvester Stallone in Judge Dredd (1995) and by Karl Urban in Judge Dredd (2012).

 

Judge Dredd (1995 film)

In the year 2139, Earth’s inhabitants have crowded into a few Mega-Cities, and the crimes have become so violent and rampant that the regular justice system cannot contain them.  However, a new justice system emerges, where mobile Judges act as instant judge/jury/ executioner units at crime scenes.  In Mega-City One (formerly New York City), Joseph Dredd aka Judge Dredd, the toughest and most stringent Judge in history, is convicted of murder.  But there are evil forces at work in the Justice Department, and Dredd is convicted for a murder he did not commit.  The legendary Judge must survive and discover the secrets of his own past in order to stop the evildoers.  Sylvester Stallone portrayed Dredd in this big-screen adaptation, which was revamped as Judge Dredd (2012 film).

 

Judge Dredd (2012 film)

In the future, America has become an irradiated waste land.  On its East Coast lies Mega City One, which runs from Boston to Washington DC – a violent metropolis of 800 million citizens, where criminals rule the chaotic streets.  The only law and rests in the urban cops called “Judges,” who possess the combined powers of judge, jury and instant executioner.  Known and feared throughout the city, Judge Dredd is the ultimate Judge.  He is challenged with ridding the city of its latest scourge: a dangerous drug epidemic the drug called “Slo-Mo,” the users of which experience reality at a fraction of its normal speed.  During a routine day on the job, Dredd is assigned to train and evaluate a rookie with genetically mutated psychic abilities.  A heinous crime calls them to a neighborhood where fellow Judges rarely dare to venture: a 200-storey vertical slum controlled by a drug lord and her ruthless clan. When the Judges capture one of the clan’s inner circle, the drug lord wages a vicious war against the Judges. Karl Urban starred in this re-imagined version of Judge Dredd (1995 film).

 

Jump drive

See Flash drive.

 

Jumpman

In the classic video arcade game, a player must defuse all of the bombs on screen by running into them.  The player can run, jump, climb ladders, and use ropes that will either move him up or down.  The only enemy in most levels is a white dot (or “bullet”) that can fire at the player in a straight line from on- or off-screen.  Jumpman’s difficulty level is centered largely on the fact that jumps cannot be controlled at all, and that there is little room for error.  A fall of even a single block height will kill the player, and many jumps require getting to a very precise location; however, a player can alter the Run Speed of the level, which controls the speed at which the player and enemies move.  The playing levels are arranged in three tiers: Beginner, Intermediate, and Expert, and could be played in order by tier, in order beginning to end, or in random order.  The game would end when the level playlist completed, or the player ran out of lives.

 

Junk sleep

Low-quality sleep caused by the use of and disruptions from electronic devices such as cell phones, computers and televisions.  Proper REM (rapid eye movement) sleep – which occurs in 90- to 120-minute cycles during the course of the night, and is thought to be involved in storing memories, learning, mood balance, and dreaming – is not achieved because one has been using consumer electronics right up until the moment of falling asleep.  In addition, many consumers leave these instruments on throughout the night, which continues to disrupt sleep.

The term “junk sleep” was popularized by a four undergraduate students at Nanyang Technological University’s Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information in Singapore.  Their study was based on the idea that using electronic devices right before bed would affect sleep in a negative way.  They concluded that junk sleep is a result of both the devices that carry the content and the content on the devices.  The brightness of the screen, portability of the device, nature of the content on the devices, how the content is displayed, and the type of content all play a role in connecting one’s mind to certain activity flows.  In order to avoid junk sleep, the students suggested not touching cell phones or laptops a half-hour before bed.

 

Jurassic Park (film)

In Steven Spielberg’s 1993 blockbuster based on Michaell Crichton’s Jurassic Park (novel), mathematician Ian Malcolm and paleontologists Alan Grant and Ellie Sattler are among a select group chosen to tour a new island theme park populated by living dinosaurs created from prehistoric DNA.  After the park’s mastermind, billionaire John Hammond, assures everyone that the facility is safe, they find out otherwise when various ferocious predators break free and go on the hunt.  The 1993 blockbuster starred Sam Neill, Laura Dern, Jeff Goldblum, Samuel L. Jackson and Sir Richard Attenborough, and spawned several sequels, as well as the video game Jurassic Park: Trespasser.

 

Jurassic Park (novel)

The Michael Crichton novel that inspired a Hollywood series of films (beginning with 1993’s Jurassic Park) was originally published in 1990 by Alfred A. Knopf, with the paperback being released in 1991 by Ballantine Books. At the beginning of the book, a previously unknown variety of three-toed lizard begins attacking children in Costa Rica.  A carcass of one of the lizards is sent to a lab at Columbia University.  Believing it to be a dinosaur, a technician calls the renowned paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant.  Before he can investigate, Grant and his research partner, Dr. Ellie Sattler, are flown to Isla Nublar, an island off Costa Rica, as consultants for InGen, a bioengineering firm.  There, John Hammond, the owner of InGen and an important financial supporter of Grant’s fossil digs, reveals that he has turned Isla Nublar into a zoo called Jurassic Park, which has been stocked with dinosaurs that have been cloned by means of a breakthrough genetic engineering technology.

Unbeknownst to Hammond and the others, the Biosyn Corporation, a rival bioengineering company, has enlisted Dennis Nedry, the designer of the island’s computer security network, to steal dinosaur embryos from the island for their own purposes.  Jurassic Park has been designed to run with only a minimal number of staff, with most of its systems being automated.  Therefore, when Nedry shuts down the park’s security system to steal the embryos, virtually all of the park’s other systems start to malfunction.  Nedry gets lost while attempting to get off the island, and is killed by a venom-spitting dilophosaur.

Meanwhile, the power outage leaves most of the “guests” trapped in various areas on the island, and disables the electrified fences around the dinosaur areas.  A Tyrannosaurus rex breaks through the fence, eating one man and severely injuring Malcolm.  Grant and the children are forced to flee into the park on foot.  Grant finds evidence proving that the dinosaurs have been breeding, even though the park scientists have claimed the dinosaurs were engineered to all be female.  Tim manages to reactivate the electric fences just before the raptors are about to penetrate the electrified bars on the lodge skylight.  He then calls the supply ship, which is about to dock in Costa Rica, and Gennaro commands the ship to turn around because of the velociraptors that have jumped aboard.  While walking outside the lodge, Hammond trips and falls down a ravine, where he is attacked and eaten by a group of small dinosaurs. Malcolm also dies from complications from his earlier injury.

The Costa Rican National Guard show up, take everyone away, and blow up the island.  Grant, while waiting for the Costa Rican officials to release him, is approached by a man who tells him about some suspicious and unidentified lizards that have recently been seen traveling in packs through the jungle on the mainland. The lizards have since fled deep into the jungle, and their whereabouts are unknown.

 

Jurassic Park: Trespasser

Inspired by the Michael Crichton novel and subsequent film and its sequels, the video game Jurassic Park: Trespasser takes place on Jurassic Park’s Site B, Isla Sorna, where the movies The Lost World: Jurassic Park and Jurassic Park III take place.  Players control Anne, who crashed onto the island and is trying to find a way off.  The game uses a first-person viewpoint, but is notably one of the first first-person shooter (FPS) games where the player sees more of their character on-screen than just the hand on the gun.  While exploring the island, founder John Hammond’s voice narrates relevant passages from the book he wrote about his experience with creating Jurassic Park, and Anne herself also chimes in to comment on the situation from time to time.

Unique among FPS games, Trespasser simulates what true first-person view is like; as such, a player can see Anne’s arm and use it to manipulate items in the game.  In addition, Anne can put her gun away and directly interact with the environment with her right arm, so a players must move the arm onto whatever they wanted to touch/interact with before hitting a button.  As a result of the game’s one-arm system, Anne can only hold and use one item at a time.  Aside from carnivorous dinosaurs, the main obstacles hindering Anne’s progress are box puzzles.

 

Justice League of America

After the successful revival of superheroes in the Silver AgeDC Comics tasked Gardner Fox and Mike Sekowsky with the job of reviving the Golden Age’s Justice Society of America.  Fox was inspired by the word “League” in various sports franchises at the time, and decided to create a new name as well as a new team.  Fox and Sekowsky created the Justice League of America in 1960, and crafted the story and pencils for the team’s first appearance in The Brave and the Bold #28.  Murphy Anderson inked this issue.

As revealed in Justice League of America Vol 1 #9, the origin of the JLA occurred when seven heroes (the Martian Manhunter, The FlashGreen LanternWonder Woman, Aquaman, Superman and Batman) first came together to repel the Appelliax alien invasion.  When the world’s greatest heroes were unable to defeat this alien threat individually, came together as a team to defeat them.  The heroes continued to work together as the Justice League of America, after realizing they worked well together and getting backing and support from the American government.  After the events of Crisis on Infinite Earths, via retroactive continuity (“retcon”), Black Canary was set as a founding member of the League in Wonder Woman’s place.  The “New 52” version of the team has a new canonical origin, which is virtually the same, except that it was Darkseid that was invading the Earth and that Cyborg has replaced the Martian Manhunter as a founding member.

At the close of the Silver Age in the 1970s, DC established that the JLA came from Earth-1.  The JLA maintained their first headquarters in a cave called the Secret Sanctuary in Happy Harbor, Rhode Island.  The JLA had an annual tradition of team-ups with their Golden Age counterparts, the Justice Society of America from Earth-2, which started in Justice League of America Vol 1 #21.  Over the decades, many superheroes joined and left the Justice League, and the League itself underwent some changes in name and location, but the team remained a constant force against supervillains, regardless of their membership.

 

Justice Society of America

In late 1940 during the Golden Age of Comics, All-American Comics (which would later merge with National Comics to become DC Comics) created a new comic book series called All-Star Comics.  With its third issue, All-Star’s format changed.  Writer Gardner Fox combined all of the comic line’s primary characters in a single story, but not to stop a crime spree or save the world.  All-Star’s heroes got together … for dinner.  This was the humble beginning of comics’ first super-hero team.  The idea behind the gathering of heroes in one issue was to promote the company’s second-tier characters.  Any character who starred in their own series was deemed ineligible for inclusion, to avoid overexposure.  For this reason, Batman and Superman were considered only honorary members of the Society, appearing only in All-Star #7 and #24.  Likewise, when The Flash and Green Lantern were given their own comic books, they “left” the JSA and become reserve members.  The opposite was also true: if a character lost his feature in another series, he also lost his membership in the JSA.  Those in attendance at the first meeting of the Justice Society included eight costumed heroes: The Flash, the Green Lantern, Hourman, The Atom, Sandman, Hawkman, Dr. Fate and The Spectre.  Two others decided to crash this dinner party: Johnny Thunder and the original Red TornadoHourman‘s “leave of absence” marked the end of his strip in Adventure Comics.

After the Justice Society’s members disappeared by the early 1950s (as most costumed heroes did), they languished in limbo until 1961.  During DC’s Silver Age, heroes such as Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman, and the Atom were dramatically updated for modern readers.  Instead of having both old and new heroes live on the same Earth, DC created the concept of “parallel Earths.”  The Justice Society’s Earth was now called “Earth Two,” while DC’s modern-day heroes lived on Earth One.  Earth Two was one of an infinite number of parallel universes, or multiverses.  Since the introduction of parallel Earths, the DC Universe has gone through some dramatic changes.  The Flash served as the JSA’s first chairperson, but resigned when his duties in Keystone City became too great (in other words, he’d been awarded his own solo comic book series).  Johnny Thunder took his place as a full member, and Green Lantern became the second chairperson.  Green Lantern served an even shorter term as chair and soon left, as well.  He was replaced by Hawkman as chairperson, who retained the post for many decades.  Green Lantern’s place in the JSA was filled by Dr. Mid-Nite.  Hourman also took a leave of absence, and was replaced by the original Starman.  The team’s first female member, Wonder Woman, made her first appearance in All-Star Comics #8 and officially joined the team four issues later.  During the war, only a handful of others joined the JSA.  Among them were Mr. Terrific and Wildcat, who appeared in only that single issue of All-Star, but later stories established them as more active members.  A much more regular cast member was Black Canary.  Also, although she was never officially inducted as a member during the Golden Age, Hawkgirl assisted the Society on several missions.

In 1951, the Justice Society simply disappeared with no explanation.  With issue #58, All-Star Comics was retitled All-Star Western, and DC shelved their former bread-and-butter heroes.  In later decades, writers explained the disappearance (in terms of DC continuity) as the product of McCarthyism.  During this paranoid time in American politics, the JSA refused to reveal their secret identities to the U.S. Government.  Instead, they chose to disband.  Many of the team members settled down and started families.  Some of their children would also become super-heroes and later form Infinity, Inc.

The Justice Society faced some of their most relentless enemies during this time, including: Brain Wave, the Psycho Pirate, Solomon Grundy, The Wizard, Per Degaton.  Most were also a part of the Injustice Society, a super-villain team that would return in many forms over the years.

Over ten years later, in the pages of The Flash #123 (1961), DC’s new Flash, Barry Allen, met his Golden Age predecessor for the first time.  DC then decided to revive the Justice Society.  But during the Silver Age, which began with Allen’s introduction in 1956, DC’s revived characters had secret identities, origins, and in some cases, powers that were vastly different than their Golden Age counterparts.  Eventually, DC Comics acquired characters from former rivals Quality Comics and Fawcett Comics (home of Captain Marvel).  These heroes’ adventures were assigned to Earth-X and Earth-S, respectively.

In their second meeting (Flash #129, 1962), the entire Justice Society showed up and decided to come out of retirement.  The membership was then comprised of the Atom, Dr. Mid-Nite, the Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Johnny Thunder and Wonder Woman.  The first meeting of the Justice Society and the Justice League of America took place just a few months later in Justice League of America #21-22 (1963).  This event proved so popular that it sparked an annual tradition.  The JSA guest-starred in Justice League of America crossovers every year for 23 years.

Several heroes joined the JSA for the first time during this period. The original Robin (Dick Grayson) joined during the crossover in Justice League of America #55.  The android Red Tornado was also admitted, but soon moved to Earth One and joined the JLA (Justice League of America #65).  After he was retrieved from being stranded in the prehistoric past, the still youthful Star-Spangled Kid joined along with Superman’s cousin, Power Girl (Kara Zor-El, the counterpart to Supergirl) (All-Star Comics #58).  And after the Batman‘s death, his daughter Helena debuted as the Huntress (All-Star Comics #72).  In addition to these, Flash and Green Lantern frequently guest-starred in their counterparts’ series.  The Golden Age Wonder Woman returned as the main character in Wonder Woman for a brief time, supplanting her Silver Age duplicate.  This coincided with the Wonder Woman TV series of the 1970s.  The original Superman (joined on one occasion by Johnny Thunder) was a regular character in Superman Family.

Two company-wide events changed JSA continuity in extremely significant ways.  First, 1985’s Crisis on Infinite Earths collapsed all parallel Earths into only one universe and continuity.  As a result, the Justice Society became the preeminent wartime heroes in the DC Universe, but Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman were entirely removed from that Golden Age.  Over the next couple of decades, writers would struggle to retrofit Golden Age tales in a coherent way, without these iconic heroes.  By the end of Crisis on Infinite Earths, all of the Golden Age heroes who had “exact duplicates” on Earth One were removed from the board.  The Earth Two Robin and Huntress died and were laid to rest in a private cemetery on the estate of Hawkman and Hawkgirl. The Golden Age Superman and his wife, Lois Lane, retreated to another dimension, and the Golden Age Wonder Woman and her husband, Steve Trevor, were invited to Olympus to live as gods. History soon forgot all about these great heroes as the universe settled into its new state of existence.  Trapped in Limbo were Hawkman, Flash, Green Lantern, Dr. Mid-Nite, Hourman, Starman, Wildcat, Johnny Thunder, Atom, Sandman, Hawkgirl and Sandy the Golden Boy.  Only the Spectre, Dr. Fate, Power Girl, and the Star-Spangled Kid managed to avoid this fate; there were already plans to use these characters in expanded roles.

Then in 2011, the second big event occurred when DC again wiped the slate clean to create the “New 52.”  This universe began fresh, with most characters reinvented from scratch.  The New 52 (or DCnU) contained 52 parallel Earths (a concept introduced by the 2005 Infinite Crisis, which had semi-restored DC’s original multiverse).  Earth 2 in the DCnU was also the home of the Justice Society. This time around, all of the characters were of a similar age to the mainstream DC Universe; they were not of World War II.  Again, Superman, Batman and Wonder Woman were removed from the board—all killed in an epic battle with Darkseid’s forces.  After their passing, familiar new heroes (or “wonders”) began to appear.