Rn – Rz

Robert the Bruce

Robert VIII de Bruce (or Robert de Brus), who lived from July 11, 1274 to June 7, 1329, would eventually become Robert I, King of Scotland (reigning 1306–29), and is remembered for two grand achievements: restoring the Scottish realm and monarchy to its once strong position, and securing recognition from the Pope of the independence and integrity of his kingdom, apart from the influence of England.

The Anglo-Norman Bruces, related by marriage to the Scottish royal family, arrived in Scotland in the early 12th Century.  The sixth Robert de Bruce, grandfather of the future king, claimed the throne when it was left vacant in 1290.  Claiming feudal superiority over the Scots, England’s King Edward I awarded the crown to John de Balliol instead.  Robert’s father, the seventh Robert de Bruce, resigned the title of Earl of Carrick to his son in 1292.  In the confused period of rebellions against English rule from 1295 to 1304, Robert VIII appears at one time among the leading supporters of the Scottish rebel William Wallace, but later apparently regained Edward I’s confidence, and signed an oath of loyalty to the king.

Despite the rebels’ initial victory at Stirling Bridge, internal disputes amongst the Scots led to Wallace’s defeat by the English in 1298.  Robert again signed a treaty with the English, retaining his lands in return for pledging loyalty to Edward I.  Along with bitter rival John Comyn, Balliol’s nephew, he was made a “Guardian of Scotland,” but in 1304, Bruce made a secret pact with William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews and friend to Wallace.  In the winter of 1305, he negotiated with other magnates to win support in his bid for the crown. No doubt he would have preferred to await Edward I’s death, but matters were brought to a head prematurely when an attempt to win over John Comyn only prompted his indignant refusal, and on February 10, 1306, Bruce stabbed and killed Comyn during a dispute at a church in Dumfries.  The murder suggests that Robert had already decided to seize the throne, and he moved quickly to do so.  Although excommunicated by Pope Clement V, Robert received absolution from Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, and with the backing of the Scottish church, he was declared king at Scone Abbey on March 25, 1306.

However, Edward I regarded Robert as a traitor, and twice defeated him in 1306, at Methven on June 19, and at Dalry, Perthshire on August 11.  While his wife and many of his supporters were captured, and three of his brothers were executed, Robert managed to escape, hiding on the remote island of Rathlin off the north Irish coast, where he spent the winter.  Returning to Scotland in the early spring of 1307, he began a highly successful guerrilla war against the English, winning ground steadily in southwest Scotland while Edward lay only sixty miles away near Carlisle, already on his deathbed.  Edward’s death and the ineptness of his successor, Edward II, were of great help to Robert, and on June 24, 1314, he triumphed against a large English army at Bannockburn.  This led to the re-establishment of an independent Scottish monarchy.

Due to continued harassment by Edward II, Scottish nobles and churchmen signed the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320, declaring Robert as the rightful king of Scotland. The pope later recognized Robert as king of Scotland and eventually, after the deposition of Edward II in 1327, Edward III’s regency government decided to make peace with the Treaty of Northampton (1328), the terms of which included the recognition of Robert I’s title as king of Scots and the abandonment of all English claims to overlordship.

Robert the Bruce had no male heir until the birth of his eldest and only surviving son David, who was crowned King David II in 1324.  In the last years of his life, Robert suffered from ill health and spent most of this time at Cardross, Dumbartonshire, where he died, possibly of leprosy, on June 7, 1329, at the Manor of Cardross, near Dumbarton.  While his body was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, his heart was removed and taken by Sir James Douglas to the Holy lands on a Crusade, in his hope to make up for the murder of Comyn in a church.

Robert the Bruce was portrayed by actor Angus Macfadyen in the 1995 film Braveheart.

 

Robin

Known as “The Boy Wonder,” Robin is Batman’s sidekick in certain storylines and realities.  Seen in films and television series at different times, Robin’s original identity was that of Dick Grayson, an orphan from a family of circus trapeze artists whose family was killed during a performance.  Grayson first appeared in Detective Comics # 38 in 1940.  Grayson spent the most time as Batman’s partner, lasting in various DC Comics series until he decided to fight crime on his own and became Nightwing.  Grayson’s first appearance as Nightwing was in Tales of the Teen Titans #44 in 1984).  In the meantime, Batman took Jason Todd, who first appeared in Batman # 357 (1983), as his partner.  Jason first appeared as Robin in Batman # 368, also published in 1983.  Jason, who was quite a different personality from Dick, did not sit well with the fans, and when an opportunity arose via a “900” number poll, the fans voted to kill Jason Todd off.  He was beaten to death with a crowbar by none other than The Joker in Batman # 427 (1988).  With the DC plotline shake-up of “The New 52,” Jason Todd was brought back to life in Batman # 638 (2005), when he woke up in his casket and broke free.  Later, Talia al-Ghul, daughter of the notorious Ra’s al Ghul, recognizes a coma victim as Jason, and resurrects him in her father’s Lazarus Pit.  The resurrected former Robin then took on an old persona of the Joker’s, The Red Hood.  However, before The New 52, after the murder of Jason Todd, Timothy Jackson “Tim” Drake-Wayne became the next Robin, debuting as a character in Batman # 436 (1989), and as Robin in Batman # 442 (1989).

Debuting in Detective Comics # 647 in 1992, and taking on the mantle of Robin in Robin # 126 in 2004, Stephanie Brown was a street vigilante who operated in Gotham City as a member of the Batman Family.  Using the name Spoiler, Stephanie was a frequent ally of Tim Drake’s.  After Drake retired as Robin, she briefly claimed his position and became Batman’s partner, but she was fired for disobeying orders.  Following the “Battle for the Cowl” story arc, she succeeded Cassandra Cain and became the newest Batgirl.  Damian Wayne first appeared as an unnamed baby in Batman, Son of the Demon in 1987), then reappeared as a teen in Batman # 655 (2006).  He made his first appearance as Robin in Batman and Robin #1 in 2009.

Independent of the main DC Comics’ storylines, Carrie Kelley acted as a new Robin to an aged and semi-crippled Bruce Wayne in Frank Miller’s The Dark Knight Returns (1986).  Robin has been portrayed on the small screen by Burt Ward, and on in films by Burt Ward in the 1966-69 TV series tie-in movie Batman (1966), by Chris O’Donnell in Batman Forever (1995) and Batman and Robin (1997).

 

Robosexual

A human who is sexually attracted to a robot.

 

Robot

Rooted in the Czech word “robota,” meaning “forced labor,” the word first appeared in a 1920 play, R.U.R.: Rossum’s Universal Robots, by playwright Karel Capek.  One of the earliest examples of what would qualify as a robot is Leonardo da Vinci’s 1478 design of a spring-driven car-like machine.  Under the heading of “robot” are a few different types of mechanisms:

1.  A machine (first seen in fiction, but now realized to some extent) that resembles a human being and performs various complex humanoid functions (walking, talking, etc.) and accomplishes routine tasks on command. Such machines are also known as androids.

 

2.  An industrial mechanism designed to perform repetitive tasks without human intervention beyond controlling the robot, either locally or remotely.

 

  • A telechir is a complex robot that is remotely controlled by a human operator for atelepresence  Such a system gives an operator the sense of being on location in, as well as the ability to interact with, a remote, dangerous or alien environment.

 

  • A telepresence robot is a remote-controlled wheeled device that features wireless internet connectivity, which simulates the experience and some of the capabilities of being physically present. It can enable remote business consultations, healthcare, home monitoring and childcare, among many other possibilities.  Typically, the robot uses a tablet to provide video and audio capabilities, and is commonly used to stand in for tour guides, night watchmen, factory inspectors and healthcare consultants, among other human professionals.

Robots can be autonomous or what is known as “swarm” or “insect” robots.  An autonomous robot is a stand-alone system with its own computer, which is called the controller.  The most advanced example of an autonomous robot is the “smart robot,” which has a built-in artificial intelligence (AI) system that can learn from its environment and its experience and add to its capabilities.

In contrast, swarm robots (also known as insect robots) work in fleets ranging in number from just a few to thousands, with all fleet members under the supervision of a single controller.

There are also recognized “generations” of computers.  First-generation robots, which date back to the 1970s, are stationary non-programmable electromechanical devices with no sensors.  Second-generation robots emerged in the 1980s, and can contain sensors and programmable controllers.  Third-generation robots (1990-present) can be stationary or mobile, as well as autonomous or insect, and may include sophisticated programming, speech recognition and/or synthesis, and other advanced features.  Finally, fourth-generation robots, which are currently in the research-and-development phase, will include such features as artificial intelligence, self-replication, self-assembly and nanoscale size.

 

Rockatansky, Max

After a motorcycle gang he is investigating kills his wife and son, this Australian police officer and central character of 1979’s Mad Max combs the highways, seeking and enacting justice.  With no one left to chase or go home to, Max hits the road.  When he is next seen, in 1981’s Mad Max 2 (released in the U.S. as The Road Warrior), it is the near future, and the land is a desolate landscape dominated by violent gangs in search of the rarest and most precious commodity: gasoline.  The former cop leads a band to a large supply of petrol in exchange for safe passage and the return of his high-powered Interceptor.  In Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome (1985), the hero matches wits with Auntie Entity, the matron of Bartertown, after discovering an isolated band of children in search of a legendary hero.  In 2015’s Mad Max: Fury Road, Max is captured by the War Boys tribe.  He meets Imperator Furiosa, and helps her get a band of women to safety.  The popular fictional hero was portrayed by Mel Gibson in his first three films, and by Tom Hardy in the reboot.

 

Rocket pack

See Jet pack.

 

Rocky Horror Picture Show, The

A small theatre musical that turned into a cultural phenomenon, the musical about cross-dressing aliens was written by Richard O’Brien as The Rocky Horror Show, and had its first preview showings at the Royal Court Theatre Upstairs, Sloane Square, London, England on June 16, 1973.  Nine months later, the show had its first US preview showings at the Roxy Theatre, Los Angeles, CA, and the show enjoyed a successful nine-month run.  It continued on the English stage until Sep 13, 1980.  In the meantime, filming began on The Rocky Horror Picture Show at Oakley Court/Bray Studios near Windsor, England on October 23, 1974.  In March 1975, The Rocky Horror Show debuted on Broadway at the Belasco Theatre, New York, NY, but closed after only three previews and 45 showings.  That August, The Rocky Horror Picture Show, starring Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, singer Meat Loaf and Richard O’Brien (as ghoulish “handyman” Riff Raff) has its worldwide premiere in London, England, and in September 1975, its US premiere occurred at the UA Westwood Theater (now called Mann Festival Theater) in Los Angeles.  The film’s general US release date occurred on September 29, 1975.  In April 1976, RHPS had its first midnight showing at the Waverly Theater (now called IFC Center) in New York City, inspiring the “audience participation” phenomenon, with spectators talking back to, shouting at and throwing props at the action on the screen.  In the spring of 1977, Sal Piro created The Rocky Horror Picture Show Fan Club.  As RHPS grew in popularity, O’Brien began working on a script for a sequel, originally titled Rocky Horror Shows His Heels.  This script was later re-worked into The Brad and Janet Show, which eventually became the motion picture sequel Shock TreatmentThe Rocky Horror Picture Show continues to enjoy runs in various theatres forty years after its initial release.

 

Roddenberry, Gene

Creator of Star Trek Eugene Wesley Roddenberry was born on August 19, 1921 in El Paso, Texas and raised in Los Angeles, California.  He joined the Army Air Corps after studying law enforcement at Los Angeles City College and flew 89 missions during World War II, earning the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal.  While stationed in the South Pacific, he published stories and poetry.  After the war, Roddenberry took a job as a commercial pilot for Pan American World Airlines before moving back to Los Angeles to pursue a career as a television writer.  Gene Roddenberry worked as an LAPD spokesman and as a speechwriter for the police chief in the early 1950s, while simultaneously attempting to gain a foothold in the entertainment industry.  Fortunately, the LAPD regularly consulted for the police show Dragnet, giving Roddenberry the opportunity to develop his scriptwriting chops.  He earned his first official television credit for an episode of Mr. District Attorney, and over the next decade he wrote for programs such as West Point, Naked City and Have Gun, Will Travel, for which he won his first Emmy Award.

In the mid-1960s, Roddenberry began work on a science-fiction show that he pitched as “Wagon Train set in space.”  His original pilot was rejected by NBC as “too cerebral,” but he was given another chance and in September 1966, the first episode of Star Trek aired.  Featuring a diverse cast that included William Shatner, Leonard Nimoy, DeForest Kelley and George Takei, the show followed the U.S.S. Enterprise and her crew on a five-year mission to “boldly go where no man has gone before” in the far reaches of the galaxy.  Although Star Trek found a loyal cult following, it was canceled in the summer of 1969 after 79 episodes.  Roddenberry stuck with the science-fiction theme as a writer and producer for the TV movies Genesis II (1973), Planet Earth (1974) and The Questor Tapes (1974).  Meanwhile, Star Trek was enjoying a surge in popularity, thanks to syndicated reruns and an animated version.  In 1975, Roddenberry was tapped to revive the franchise under the name Star Trek: Phase II.  Following the success of Star Wars – Episode IV: A New Hope, executives elected to rush a feature-length Star Trek film into production, and in 1979, the special effects-laden Star Trek: The Motion Picture opened to mixed reviews.  Five sequels with the original cast followed, though after the first film, Roddenberry had limited involvement as an “executive consultant.”  On September 4, 1986, Roddenberry became the first writer/producer to be honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.  He was an executive producer for Star Trek: The Next Generation, which became a huge hit following the series launch in 1987.  In 1990, he was honored with the Jack Benny Memorial Award of lifetime achievement by the March of Dimes.  Roddenberry went into cardiac arrest and passed away on October 24, 1991.  His influence on popular culture was enormous; Star Trek became the first TV series to have an episode preserved in the Smithsonian Institution, and NASA named one of its space shuttles Enterprise, specifically after Roddenberry’s starship.  Four Next Generation movies and several television spin-offs arrived in the years after Roddenberry’s death, and in 2009, a Star Trek reboot was a box-office smash, proving that its characters and themes remained as beloved as ever.

 

Rodor, Aristotle

An incredibly intelligent and gifted inventor with a particular knowledge in chemistry and philosophy, Rodor worked together with his colleague Arby Twain to develop pseudoderm, a product initially intended for use as a bandage.  When they discovered that pseudoderm was actually toxic on open wounds, they agreed to discontinue it, though Twain secretly began marketing it to Third World countries.  Learning of this, Rodor enlisted the help of former student and investigative journalist Charles Victor Szasz to investigate and expose Twain.  He gives Szasz the pseudoderm to disguise his face, helping to give birth to the vigilante The Question.

The DC Comics character was created by Steve Ditko. He made his first appearance in Blue Beetle #1, but made his first regular series appearance in The Question #1, written by Dennis O’Neil and illustrated by Denys Cowan.

 

Romulan ale

An infamous blue alcoholic beverage in the Star Trek universe, the drink has a notorious powerful kick, and was banned throughout the United Federation of Planets before 2285.  It was not even available for replication aboard the Enterprise-D in 2366.

 

Romulus

1) Legendary twin brother to Remus, and co-founder of Rome.  Traditionally, they were said to be the sons of Rhea Silvia, daughter of the king of Alba Longa, Numitor.  Rhea bore the twins, who were fathered by the war god Mars.  Amulius ordered the infants drowned in the Tiber River, but the trough in which they were placed floated down the river and came to rest at the site of the future city of Rome, where a she-wolf and a woodpecker—both sacred to Mars—suckled and fed them until they were found by the herdsman Faustulus.  Reared by Faustulus and his wife, Acca Larentia, the twins became leaders of a band of adventurous youths, eventually killing Amulius and restoring their grandfather to the throne.  They subsequently founded what would become the city of Rome on the site where they had been saved.  According to one version of the legend, after Romulus built a city wall, he killed his brother Remus when he jumped over it.

Romulus consolidated his power, and the city was named for him.  He increased its population by offering asylum to fugitives and exiles.  He invited the neighboring Sabines to a festival, then during the celebration, the Roman men abducted the Sabine virgins in the infamous “Rape of the Sabine women” incident.  The women married their captors and intervened to prevent the Sabines from seizing the city.  In accordance with a treaty drawn up between the two parties, Romulus accepted the Sabine king Titus Tatius as his co-ruler.  Titus Tatius’ early death left Romulus as sole king again, and after a long rule, he mysteriously disappeared in a storm.  Believing that he had been changed into a god, the Romans worshiped him as the deity Quirinus.

The legend of Romulus and Remus probably originated in the 4th century BC and was set down in coherent form at the end of the 3rd century BC.  It contains a mixture of Greek and Roman elements.  The Greeks customarily created mythical eponymous heroes to explain the origins of place-names.  The story of the rape of the Sabine women was perhaps invented to explain the custom of simulated capture in the Roman marriage ceremony.  By including Mars in the legend, the Romans were attempting to connect their origins with that important deity.  In the early 21st Century, archaeologists discovered remains from the 8th century BC of a cave, boundary walls, and a palace that were possible parallels between history and legend.  A famous bronze statue of a she-wolf, which now resides in the Capitoline Museums in Rome, is believed to date to the early years of the Roman Republic (late 6th to early 5th Century BC); suckling twins were added to the statue in the 16th century AD.  Some scholars, however, have claimed that the statue is from the medieval period.

2) Sister planet to Remus, home world of the Romulan race in the Star Trek universe.

 

Ross, Alex

Born in Portland, Oregon and raised in Lubbock, Texas, the comic artist came from an artistic family: his mother was a commercial artist and his grandfather built working wooden toys and loved drawing.  When Ross discovered Spider-Man on an episode of the children’s television show The Electric Company, his life was changed forever.  Ross began reading comics and taking his draftsmanship seriously, admiring the work of comic book illustrators George Perez and Berni Wrightson (co-creator of Swamp Thing), Andrew Loomis and the “photorealistic style” of Norman Rockwell in particular.

At the age of 17, Ross went to Chicago and began studying painting at the American Academy of Art, the school where his mother had studied, and where Salvador Dali became a big influence, for his vivid imagination and a hyper-realistic quality.  It was at the Academy that Ross hit on the idea of painting his own comic books.  After three years at the American Academy, Ross graduated and took a job at an advertising agency.  Meanwhile, Marvel Comics editor Kurt Busiek had seen Alex’s work and suggested the two men collaborate on a story.  Those plans came to fruition in 1993 with Marvels, a graphic novel that took a realistic look at Marvel superheroes by presenting them from the point-of-view of an ordinary man.  The book landed Ross his first serious media exposure, and got him the attention of the fans, as well.  Ross followed Marvels up with Kingdom Come, a futuristic story for DC Comics about a minister who must intercede in a superhero Civil War.  It was a visual feast, filled with surprise cameos, in-jokes and a main character based on Ross’ father, allowing Ross to publicly acknowledge his family’s influence.

Having established himself creatively and financially with superhero projects, Ross turned to the real world with Uncle Sam, a 96-page story that took a hard look at the dark side of American history.  Ross’ recent works have celebrated the 60th anniversaries of Superman, Batman, Captain Marvel and Wonder Woman with fully painted, tabloid-sized books, depicting each of these characters using their powers to inspire humanity as well as help them.  In recent years, Ross has applied his artistic skills to outside projects with comic book roots, including a limited-edition promotional poster for the 2002 Academy Awards.  A number of items created especially for the Warner Bros. Studio Stores – including lithographs, collector’s plates and even a canvas painting of Superman – made him the best-selling artist in the chain’s history.

In the fall of 2001, Ross painted a series of four interlocking covers for TV Guide (featuring characters from the WB series Smallville) and designed and sculpted a series of busts based on characters he created for the Marvel series Earth X.

 

Router

In packet-switched networks such as the internet, a router is a device or software that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination.  Once the next point is determined, the router forwards the data packet to that network.

 

Rowling, J.K.

Joanne “J.K.” Rowling was born on July 31, 1965, in Yate, England.  A graduate of Exeter University, Rowling moved to Portugal in 1990 to teach English.  There, she met and married the Portuguese journalist Jorge Arantes.  The couple’s daughter Jessica was born in 1993.  After her marriage ended in divorce, Rowling moved to Edinburgh with her daughter.  While struggling to support Jessica and herself on welfare, Rowling worked on a book, the idea for which had reportedly occurred to her while she was traveling on a train from Manchester to London in 1990.  After a number of rejections, she finally sold the book, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (the word “Philosopher” was changed to “Sorcerer” for its publication in America), for the equivalent of about $4,000.  The book, and its subsequent series, chronicled the life of Harry Potter, a young wizard, and his motley band of cohorts at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.  The writer became an international literary sensation in 1999, when the first three installments of her Harry Potter series took over the top three slots of The New York Times best-seller list, after achieving similar success in her native United Kingdom.  The phenomenal response to Rowling’s books culminated in July 2000, when the fourth volume in the series, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, became the fastest-selling book in history.

 

Rubik’s Cube

In 1974, a young professor of architecture in Budapest, Hungary named Erno Rubik created an object that took Erno himself well over a month to work out the solution.  The rotating cube puzzle would become the world’s best-selling toy ever.  After presenting a prototype to his students and friends, Erno began to realize the potential of his invention.  The first cubes were made and distributed in Hungary.  These early models, marketed as “Buvos Kocka” (“Magic Cubes”), were twice the weight of later models.  Enchanted mathematicians took the Cubes to international conferences, and one expat Hungarian entrepreneur took the cube to the Nuremberg Toy Fair in 1979.  It was at there that toy specialist Tom Kremer agreed to sell it to the rest of the world.  Kremer’s unrelenting belief in the unique toy finally resulted in the Ideal Toy Company taking on distribution of the “Magic Cube.”  Ideal Toy’s executives thought that the name had overtones of witchcraft, and after considering several possibilities, they settled on “Rubik’s Cube.”  Since its international launch in 1980, an estimated 350 million Rubik’s Cubes have been sold.

 

Rucka, Greg

Born in San Francisco and raised on the Central Coast of California, the DC Comics contributing writer and author of the novel Batman: No Man’s Land began his writing career in earnest at the age of nine by winning a countywide short-story contest.  He graduated from Vassar College with a Bachelor’s degree in English, and from the University of Southern California’s Master of Professional Writing program with an M.F.A.  He is the author of nearly a dozen novels, six featuring bodyguard Atticus Kodiak, and two featuring Tara Chace, the protagonist of his Queen & Country series.  Additionally, he has penned several short-stories, countless comics, and the occasional non-fiction essay. In comics, he has had the opportunity to write stories featuring some of the best-known characters—Superman, Batman and Wonder Woman, to name a few—as well as penning several creator-owned properties himself, such as Whiteout and Queen & Country (both published by Oni Press), a few stand-alone novels, and countless comic books.  Whiteout: Melt won “Best Limited Series” at the Eisner Awards in 2000.  He won another Eisner for Gotham Central: Half a Life in 2004.

Greg attended Vassar College undergraduate. He had a splendid time, and thanks the institution for the education which he is now, gleefully, squandering. After Vassar, he attended USC for his Master’s Degree.  After USC, they moved to Oregon, and resided in Eugene for a time before settling in Portland, where he resides with his wife, author Jennifer Van Meter, and his two children.

 

Ruk

An android built by the Old Ones of the planet Exo III centuries before being discovered by Dr. Roger Korby.  Having no one to service for those centuries, Ruk was satisfied to have work to do in assisting Dr. Korby as a bodyguard and assistant in his experiments, as the doctor created more androids.   In 2266, when the powerful automaton turned on his “master,” Dr. Korby destroyed Ruk with a phaser blast.  Ruk was portrayed by actor Ted (“Lurch” from The Addams Family) Cassidy in the 1966 Star Trek episode “What Are Little Girls Made Of?”

 

Rumpelstiltskin

          

  1. The central character in one of the tales collected by the Brothers Grimm in the original 1812 edition of Children’s and Household Tales. In the story, a miller brags to the king that his daughter can spin straw into gold.  Arrangements are made for her to marry the King, but she must prove her talent within three days, or be killed.  Unable to actually perform this feat, she employs a mysterious trickster to do the work for her, promising her firstborn child to him.  When she has her baby, the stranger reappears to collect it, but the queen’s sorrow inspires him to give her a chance to keep the child if she can guess his name in three days.  When the queen correctly guesses the man’s name on the third night, he becomes so angry that he stomps his foot into the ground and then pulls himself apart.

2. A central character in the ABC television drama Once Upon A Time, Rumpelstiltskin, as portrayed by Robert Carlyle, is the consummate dealmaker. In the modern-day scenes in Storybrooke, Maine, he is known as “Mr. Gold,” the proprietor of a pawn shop, where you can obtain practically anything you need, but usually at an uncomfortable “price.”

 

Ruth

A secondary character from the original Star Trek series episode “Shore Leave,” Ruth is an old flame of Captain James T. Kirk’s from his Starfleet Academy days.  Due to the mechanics and purpose of the “amusement park” planet, a walking, talking copy of Ruth appears to Kirk when she simply crosses his mind.  Ruth was portrayed by Shirley Bonne.

 

Rutherfordium

Discovered in 1964 when a team at the Russian Joint Institute for Nuclear Research led by Georgy Fleroy bombarded plutonium with neon, rutherfordium (symbol Rf, atomic number 104 on the Periodic Table of Elements) is classified as a transition metal.  The boiling and melting points of the element are thus far unknown.  It is named after physicist and chemist Lord Ernest Rutherford, who is known as the father of nuclear physics, but the element is also known as unnilquadium (named for the number “104”) and dubnium.